Khamis, 15 Mac 2018

Project #1 - Ikea Algot Installation for Master Bedroom

Semuanya bermula apabila aku nak mencari solusi terbaik untuk menyimpan pakaian kami suami isteri. Kami tinggal di flat berkeluasan 669sf. Jadi, korang boleh bayangkan tak berapa besar saiz master bedroom aku tu?

Aku memang suka betul dengan almari pasang dalam sebab kami boleh maksimakan penggunaan ruang yang ada. Masalahnya, poket kecil kami tak mengizinkan kami untuk menzahirkan impian tu. 

Mana ada kontraktor terima bayaran sikit2. Kalau adapun, kena guna installment by Credit Facilities. Ada interest. So, setelah habis survey aku berminat dengan Open Clothes & Shoes Storage System by Ikea.

Melalui Algot System, aku boleh beli storage unit parts sikit2 tanpa beli semua kelengkapan sekali gus. Firstly, korang kena tau Algot tu. Dia ada 3 jenis iaitu Basket and Frame Storage, Wall Mounted Storage dan Solitair Clothes Storage.

Basket and Frame Storage

Wall Mounted Storage

Solitair Clothes Storage

Aku decided untuk pilih wall mounted sebab nampak kemas dan murah dari solitair. Kemudian, aku ukur keluasan dinding - 280cm x 270cm. Kena pastikan juga unit parts mana yang bersesuaian dengan saiz dinding tu.
Dinding ni 280cm x 270cm

Aku bermula dengan few sketches. Kalau tak pandai lukis, tak apa. Guna je Algot Planner. Just masukkan saiz dinding dan mix and match unit parts. Tapi aku macam tak puas guna planner tu. Tu yang melakar sendiri tu.
Design ni quite close dengan apa yang aku dah installed

Kalau guna planner, korang akan dapat listing unit parts apa yang diperlukan beserta harga. Kalau lukis manual macam aku, pemerhatian kena tajam. Nanti kau akan terlepas pandang pada brackets yang diperlukan.

Kalau korang jalan2 di showroom Ikea, korang akan terjumpa manual Algot ni. Bagus manual ni. Ada diajar untuk kira jarak dan sebagainya untuk ketiga2 sistem tu. Onlinepn ada.
Bila dah ada listing barang yang diperlukan, akupun beli brg sikit2 bermula dari 24 Feb 2017 smpi Januar 2018 baru cukup brg and start buat. Setiap bulan aku spent RM100-RM200 beli parts tu. Ada duit lebih, spent la sampai RM300.

Disebabkan aku pakai Algot System untuk master bedroom and second bedroom, pembelian tu agak memakan masa. Itupun design lari sebab kekangan ruang. Degil, x nk guna planner and ikut exactly manual yang Ikea prepare. 

Untuk entry ni, aku citer kos utk bilik ni sahaja yea:

1. 2 mount rail 66cm RM20
2. 1 mount rail 88cm RM15
3. 6 wall upright 196cm RM120
4. 30 brackets 38cm RM450
5. 8 metal shelf 60x38cm RM240
6. 8 box 38x60x14cm RM160 (diskaun)
7. 4 box 38x60x29cm RM120 (diskaun)
8. 12 packets Pull out rail RM120
9. 4 rod 60cm RM40

Total RM1365 (Harga tidak termasuk 3 metal shelves yang aku hacked jadi bridge shelves)

So, 3 Febuari 2018 bermulalah kerja-kerja pemasangan. Aku hanya lakar, husband tolong tebuk lubang and installed mount rail and wall upright. Brackets, shelves, baskets dan yang lain2 tu aku pasang sendiri. Makan masa 2 hari gak la.

Sabtu, 1 April 2017



Thinking inside the Box
By Barney Wolf

According to Wolf (2015), boxed lunches or upscale grab-and-go items are alternatives to enlarge restaurant operators’ sales and marketing in order to satisfy busy on-the-go Americans. Spokespersons from various brands are stating that the alternatives are now at growing number percentage due to high demand of the customers who prefer to have their meals at their respective locations. The boxed lunches are favoured by individuals, corporate, school sporting, travel events, groups of excursionists, churches or charity organizers. The meals are comprises from fast food to healthier meals with different range of choices and prices. The boxed lunches are handy, personalize and conducive to suit the needs of the customers. However, not all items in the boxed lunches are prepared by the same restaurant operators.
Criteria that differentiate boxed lunches or upscale grab-and-go items with other caterings are:
  • Meals are prepared earlier or after the peak hour of normal restaurant operations
  • Restaurants typically requested that customer’s order need to be done beforehand
  • The order has to be correct and delivery of meals must be punctual
  • Mistakes are slightly accepted
  • Any errors cannot be corrected on the spot
  • The meals are usually served cold or with the entrée served in hot bags
  • Packaging are important with attractive graphics and menu
  • Some of the customers have never been to the restaurants but experience the meals via boxed lunches
  • They are customers with nutrition awareness. This lead to healthy meals boxed lunches
  • Some of the items are prepared by outsourced companies that have been appointed by the restaurants.
Particularly, the author appeals to recent research conducted by Technomic Inc., shows that box lunches and other catering efforts are certainly growing areas for operators especially after the recession. Technomic also reports that $45.8 billion of catering industry are made up by quick-service restaurants, follows by fast casuals at 7 percent and the number is growing. Eventhough boxed lunches can be done without interrupting normal business, they are actually easy to say than to be done in proper way because it requires a lot of works. So, this is where experience is important to ensure the smoothness of the operations.
The author cites Erle Dardick, founder of the Catering Institute and Affiliated Companies that the demand of boxed lunches are various from corporate offices, school sporting, travel events, groups of excursionists or for charity purposes. The statement is supported from reports by brands such as Which Wich and Jason’s Deli restaurants which have been received the same type of customers including individuals, business, and even churches. Thus, restaurant operators are seeing the benefits of catering outside the restaurant where people enjoy the food and the brand is known and an opportunity to market their products. In addition, spending plenty of time, effort and investment on this new business model are worth it.

Lindsay Macedo, representative from Which Wich responses that grab-and-go items are handy and personalize. The customization of the boxed lunches can be seen through their offering of 50 sandwiches that can be chosen including condiments and desserts. Restaurants such as Bruegger’s Bagels and My Fit Foods say that boxed lunches are also conducive due to two reasons; meeting the needs of those who in rush during lunch hour because of tight schedule and extended meetings and customers who eat their meals frequently. Boxed lunches successfully solve their issue; they do not have to stuck on traffic or miss their lunch by having the meals at their own desks.

Wolf’s article brings the idea of the latest trend in foodservice industry. It is understandable that boxed lunches or upscale grab-and-go items are making golden fortune to most restaurant operators as sociological predicts that American will face longer working hours that results to greater demand of this trend. The author successfully manages to focus on the advantages of the trend but slightly ignoring the disadvantages of the trend. The challenges that has been highlighted has not been further explained thus results in questionable statement. Furthermore, lack of other available resources besides citations of the main players in the industry is also identified. Moreover, facts such as figure of profit makings should be clear stated with comparison of each year sale in order to support statement in the article.

Overall, the article shows how boxed lunches may provide additional revenue and marketing for operators without neglecting their current business operations. People who involve directly in foodservice industry, lecturers and students in related field will find this article useful; except for certain matters. Improvising can be done in order to make the article more solid and perfectly written. Firstly, the facts which are not convincing can be added with relevant financial report. Along with the advantages, a brief explanation on disadvantages of the trend can be written as to show comparison between them. The challenges that has been raised earlier, should be further explained with examples in the industry. Lastly, references to other media such as television or radio can be used for variation in supporting statements.


Small Plates, Big Presentation
By Korsha Wilson

Wilson’s article (2015) discusses the emerging method of serving dishes in small-plates concept. In this concept, the dishes are served in mini crock pots, tiny cast-iron skillets, or diminutive Mason jars. Although the portion size of the meals probably small, chefs and back-of-the-house crews agree that the concept benefits in many ways. Two restaurants which apply the concept; No. 8 Kitchen & Spirits and Barilla agree that serving in small-plates helps to add value to the dining experience and manage cost control. Small-plates may require intensive care but serving dishes become pleasant and convenient whereby the dishes are prepared ahead, pre-portion and heat it prior to service. This concept differentiate them from fine-dining image and brings more homey and cozy ambience to the guests.

Small-plates trend is unique because:
  • Instead of using white plates, compact cookware is preferable such as mini crock pots, tiny cast-iron skillets, diminutive Mason jars and ramekins
  • Small-plates concept is a creative way to add value in dining experience
  • Small-plates may also play as measuring tools to control food cost
  • The concept idea might be troublesome during peak hours but it is actually pleasant and convenient way of serving dishes by preparing the meals earlier, pre-portion and heat it prior to service
  • Sometimes, intensive care is required when dealing with such compact cookware where the Mason jars have to be kept in a dedicated shelf and to be hand-washed
  • The cookware also can be used for other purposes. For instance, the Mason jars can be used for beverages, flower vases or filled with water as centerpieces to deter insects
  • The concept does not overshadow the fine-dining image
  • Create more homey and cozy ambience to the guests.
In U.S., tapas or Spain cuisine is the pioneer that leads to the small-plates trend and the trend is tremendously growing. According to a study by Technomic, a research and consulting firm focused on the food service industry; 27 percent of consumers said they usually ordered small-plates as a starter to a meal or as part of a tapas-style meal. Another 30 said they sometimes ordered small plates. The study shows that there is a demand on smaller portions. One of the truth fact is, the millennials are one of the reason. The younger set likes the more experimental way of sharing different plates and customizing meals. Elizabeth Sims, Tupelo Honey’s marketing director says that the millennials are very used to getting precisely what and how they want it.  They do not want to be served in a cookie-cutter idea.

McPhee from Restaurant 17 says that serving small-plates in addition to entrees actually allows the chefs to avoid food waste and keep lowers costs. They can purchase items in larger quantities at a lower cost. For example, instead of buying multiple pounds of the same cut of meat, the chefs can order the whole animal. They use the standards cuts for entrées and, in small-plates, have an outlet for the other cuts not normally used. Joe Clarke, chef and owner at American Grocery Restaurant agrees that he is experiencing something similar when it comes to small-plates. For example, when Clarke serves ribeye steak, he inevitably has leftover cuts of meat. The chef has turned those leftovers into an andouille dish on the restaurant’s starter menu.

However, small-plates are not meant for everyone. It is a proof that there are someone who against the idea. This can be seen where plenty of restaurants in U.S. are sticking to the traditional way of serving. Managing partner of Larkin’s on the River, Bob Munnich says while the menu offers an array of appetizers like shrimp cocktail and a tenderloin, goat-cheese quesadilla, the restaurant will likely never go full throttle on small-plates. He also adds that in order to maintain the level of service and the quality of food, the fewer different presentations that they have of each thing, the more consistent it is. Also, the easier it is to produce at a higher volume and at a more consistent level of quantity.

The small-plates approach can be an effective way to “upsell” menu items, says Green zebra chof-owner Shawn McClain, who features 20 to 25 petite portions on his vegetarian menu. Although the price seems lower on the menu, in a lot of cases they are upselling the number of items-and especially at the tables that are sharing. Mc Clain’s employees have taken advantage of those opportunities. Since opening in 2004, sales at his 60-seat, dinner-only restaurant have hovered between $1.2 million and $1.4 million a year. Suprisingly, about 75 percent of their business consists of repeat customers.

A food blogger from says serving in small-plates are completely contrary to how he likes to eat. This applies to the food that he loves the most where he would like to have it a lot and prefer not to share. The idea of serving in small-plates is most likely to encourage people to eat less of everything and share with everyone. Also, he mentions about flavour issue where the taste of small size food is different with full-sized plate of food. That is why, Chef Green, general manager at High Cotton firstly suggesting to add more small-plates to its menu but ultimately decided against a major overhaul. He says that they have to find the right balance of small plates, snack plates and entrées in order to consider customers opinion.

Wilson’s article focusses on small-plates trend or serving in small size portion which is a growing business in the time being. The trend which has been identified by National Restaurant Association in 2009, plays a significant role in changing consumer preference from fine-dining to more homey style of dining. The author manages to highlight the objective of the article with clear definition and describes the benefits of the concept in a very straightforward explanation. Conversely, the article seems lack of explanation in some key issues. Firstly, small-plates is stated to help cost control but definition in cost control has broader in meaning. Next, how does the cleaning and sanitation are done with very extra care besides keeping in dedicated shelf and hand-washed as stated in second last paragraph?   

In a nutshell, small-plates concept makes dining experience more valuable, able to compete with fine-dining trend and enhance chef’s creativity. The article can be a good source of reference; absolutely well-written and useful especially when it comes to the information on the latest trend in foodservice except of few points that should be improvised. Probably, comprising timeline of small-plates concept or revolution of small-plates in foodservice industry which might assist readers to have the basic understanding of the trend. Secondly, to briefly describe the scope of costs that has contributed in reducing the overall cost of business. Lastly, to detail some information on cleaning and sanitation practices of the vessels which has been stated as extra care.

The Mobile Age
By Kevin Hardy

The article by Kevin Hardy discusses mobile tools, the latest technology in foodservice industry. The industry is eagerly looking forward to replace cash and credit to mobile payment and ordering methods. Mobile tools might be costly and does not simply engage with legacy systems. However, the applications are very convenient. In sync with faster payment transactions, the application integrates the brand’s loyalty programme and increases number of customers. Mobile tools enable customers to immediately access information about restaurants via smartphones, avoid the queues and allow both customers and operators to promptly track loyalty programmes. Conversely, study shows that technology made restaurant visits more complicated, fundamental the continued importance of quality customer service.

Other advantages that the main players in the industry highlight about mobile tools are:
  • Mobile payment enables employees to focus on quality and accuracy that helps to excellence operations
  • Stores can offer curbside and in-store pickup, which allows customers to circumvent the line at the counter or drive thru
  • Payment process is much faster than a traditional transaction
  • On casual-dining segment, mobile payment makes easier for customers when they do not have to wait on a check to make a payment
  • Mobile tools improves customer satisfaction
  • The applications can be accessed anywhere and at anytime
  • The technology provides restaurants with powerful data such as demographic
  • Restaurant-branded applications can target suggestive selling to individual customers-which helps explain the increased incremental revenue operators realize on mobile orders.
Research conducts by Cornell University and Mississippi State University states that the readiness and willingness of customers to adopt customer-facing payment technology such as tabletop tablets and smartphone payments is emerging because the convenience that comes with mobile ordering and payment methods. The research which focuses on the casual-dining segment shows that customers like the domination of these mobile tools. They do not have to wait on a check anymore. It same goes to fast food service segment which shows Domino’s mobile application that has been downloaded by more than 5 million users. Online ordering now accounts for about half of all Domino’s orders, which can help to ease burden of employees in stores, as fewer employees are needed to handle the phones.
According to American Express, mobile payment programmes are relatively inexpensive and do not require complicated technical knowledge to implement. That is why small businesses have been fast to adopt the latest technology. Furthermore, the ability to offer credit card payments through this programme may able to increase customer base and sales. Meanwhile, some mobile payment providers charge less per transaction than credit card companies, which equates to direct savings for the company. Keith Garabedian, owner of Hot Diggity says mobile payments allow them to receive 250 customers during peak lunch hour. By utilizing mobile payments, they can serve customers faster rather than the traditional way of payment.

One of the biggest advantages of using a mobile payment option is the ability to integrate loyalty and incentive programmes into the mobile payment applications. Instead of customers having to stay with punch cards or key ring tags, all of their information is kept in the application each time they make a purchase with their mobile device. Jared Isaacman, CEO of POS provider Harbortouch, says mobile technology has for a couple years been able to make strong case: customers may immediately access information about restaurants via smartphones, mobile ordering enables customers to skip the line and mobile applications allow both customers and operators to promptly track loyalty programmes.

Gene Signorini, vice president of mobile insights at Mobiquity says a common difficulties for small businesses is tracking inventory and customer behaviour. With mobile payment, these processes can be automated and serve customers better. Now, mobile payments can track type of product and services they are providing to understand customer demands. Payment information can now be captured and they are able to learn about their customers and utilize the information to improve service.  Noah Glass, founder of Olo agrees that the technology provides restaurants with powerful data. By tracking customer habits and geography, restaurant-branded applications can target suggestive selling to individual customers-which helps explain the increased incremental revenue operators realize on mobile orders.

Garabedian also adds that mobile tools helps to increase speed of checking customers out. There are a few other options out there for a retailer to integrate payments within its branded app. Paypal for example, provides that opportunity. Customers like quick service, especially during making payment since that is typically their least favourite part of the sopping or dining experience. Most customers and employees find that it is considerable faster top pay with a mobile device than a credit card. Customers typically are more willing to return if they do not have to wait a long time in line.

In Hardy’s article, technology in foodservice industry nowadays emerges in many ways as solution for better service. It is his main objective to expose readers with benefits that can be obtained in transforming traditional payment and ordering methods to mobile tools. Specifically defines the technology, he identifies the advantages of mobile tools and convince readers with valid resources from both operators’ and technical perspectives. Although most of the contents are perceived only on the positive effects of the technology, he also knocks the readers’ sense by pointing some of general disadvantages of mobile tools in two separated paragraphs. All of the key points are varied and mostly supported from research and study which provide relevant facts and figures.

In conclusion, the author successfully relates the article with current issues that happen in daily operations of foodservice. Furthermore, it turns out that mobile tools are relevant not only to the business but as one way to reform efficiency among employees. The implication of the article is to encouraging operators to search better options in investing the technology for business growth and recognize the benefits of mobile tool towards healthy competition in the industry. “The Mobile Age” will definitely can be a good source of knowledge and reference for people within or outside of the industry.


Wolf, B. (2015). Thinking Inside the Box. Retrieved from
Wilson, K. (2015). Small Plates, Big Presentation. Retrieved from
Hardy, K. (2015). The Mobile Age. Retrieved from
Bauer, C. (n.d). Guidelines for Writing a Summary. Retrieved from
Andrews, S. (n.d). Reviewing Books and Articles. Retrieved from
Rogers, W. (n.d). Critical Review. Retrieved from

Khamis, 30 Mac 2017

Wall Mounted Rack

Sejak akhir2 ni, hati serabut, minda kusut tgk rumah yg x teratur. Otak x jemu2 memikirkan solusi terbaik untuk menyimpan baju dan macam2 khazanah kat rumah. 

Harga utk beli almari bukannya murah, Kalau boleh installmentpun kene redha dgn installment plan dari AEON Credit. Bermakna, kena berhutang lagi! Jemu byr hutang!

Selalunya usha website Ikea. Ada yg murah, murah sgt. Ada yg mahal, mampu telan liur je. Akhirnya, aku tertarik dgn satu sistem yg diperkenalkan Ikea...Algot System. 

Algot ni kalau dikira-kira, boleh dikatakan mahal. Yelah, besi rangka2 tanpa pintu je bersama bakul, shelves and etc dalam RM1+++ utk lebar 278cm and ketinggian hampir mencapai siling. 

Prosnya adalah spare part brg tu boleh dibeli sedikit2 bkn sekali gus. Sesuai utk rumah dan poket kecilku. Di bawah ni adalah ideas dr pengguna Algot di seluruh dunia. Layankan..
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Selasa, 14 Mac 2017


Article Writing

Question / Issues
Fresh food innovation in retail requires links to the chain to become part of the value-added process. The retailer is an active participant and key to the fresh food innovation process. It is retailers who mostly determine the role of the supplier and the rate of innovation in fresh food chains. Additionally, the retailer plays a role in the product idea, product development, and launch cycles in fresh food innovation. Write an article about the roles, issues or challenges of food retailer with regards to the above statement. Students are requires to write an article of about 750 words. 

1.0 Introduction
Over the past five years, there has been a significant increase in overall fresh food offerings as retailers strive to meet rising demand from consumers (Duff and Phelps, 2016). Despite able to contribute healthy sales in business, keeping fresh food is rather complicated. Thus, fresh food retailing is experiencing innovation in order to reach consumers in new ways. The roles of retailers in driving innovation success are critical by executing strategies such as offering value product, employing high-impact merchandising strategies and building a supply chain with the right economics. However, the retailers also confront with issues or challenges in the process such as implementation of alternatives in limited workforce becomes less effective, risk of losing relevance (and patronage), perishable products and strategy development.

2.0 The Roles, Issues or Challenges of Food Retailers in Fresh Food Innovation
As the own brand market was evolving, the market share of own brands was steadily increasing over the past years, though varying from country to country (Bourlakis, Hirner, Moiter and Werkhoven, 2013). Retailers may offer value products within the premium segment and premium products within the value segment. This strategy would attract customers who have become more cost-conscious due to decrease in incomes and purchasing power (Mike Stones, 2013). For example, Tesco Stores (M) Sdn Bhd have their own brand, “Tesco” with “Tesco Everyday Value” that aimed customers who want to spend their money wisely and discount competitors such as Giant Supermarket. Meanwhile, “Tesco Finest” directly aimed at competitors such as Sam’s Groceria.

Moreover, retailers must employ high-impact merchandising strategies that clearly define freshness and determine unique ways to demonstrate it. According to ATKearney (2013), the merchandising tactics include dish customization, attractive packaging and display, a “made-on-premises” look, aroma, evidence of frequent rotation or replenishment, appropriate signage, suggestive selling, see-through packaging, and labeling that indicates the production date rather than the expiry date. These tactics contribute to the desired impression of freshness and are essential to optimize the fresh prepared foods opportunity. Ikea Restaurant is the best example that apply these tactics; variety of food offerings that can be seen through the open kitchen concept, cozy ambient atmosphere, great dining experience and much more.

On top of that, numerous food manufacturers have perceived that the fresh foods supply chain is particularly delicate to the economics of sales turnover and product waste. Retailers require different supply chains focused on short shelf life, product turnover, optimized assortment, and target pricing. Also, retailers must partner with reputable suppliers that can handle all of the complexities of fresh distribution when it comes to food safety concerns. Perhaps, they may need to consider alternatives (Allen, McLaughilin and Pierson, 1990) to remain freshness such as:
1.             In-store preparation whereby food is prepared on-site. For instance, Giant Supermarket has its own food court that serve fresh prepared foods to patrons.
2.             In-store finish whereby frozen foods are delivered by product supply chain and reheated in the store kitchen. For instance, Ikea Restaurant.
3.             Commissary model whereby a network of centralized kitchens is established to prepare and deliver ready-to-serve meals or partner with local fresh food providers. For instance, there is food & beverage section (not food court) in Mydin that serve ready-to-serve food and drinks.
4.             Food processor model whereby retailers establish a partnership with a large food processor. Tesco and Giant have their own products that apply this model. The products include frozen minced beef, nuggets, French fries, mixed vegetables, and etc.

Nevertheless, these alternatives are less effective to implement when retailer has limited workforce. Retailers should focus on a core assortment. In order to achieve proper balance between merchandising fresh products and reducing shrinkage, managing assortment should be done effectively. There is also risk of losing relevance (and patronage) for retailers to cope in fresh prepared foods. It could be impossible for old-fashioned supermarkets to adapt changes in their business. Even though fresh prepared foods can be profitable, retailers should carefully evaluate a business model that is affordable and suitable for their positioning. The approach should be able to match the venue and investments should be chosen wisely.

Another challenge pertaining to fresh foods is that perishable products inventory cannot be used as the shield to manage sub-optimal information management. The use of inventory would be efficient for other types of manufacturing supply chain but not in fresh food supply chain where there are many forms of inefficiency including wastage, repackaging, out-of-stocks, discounted sales and having to purchase from non-preferred suppliers (Alberta Value Chain Initiative, n.d.). Many of these inefficiencies – such as out-of-stocks and discounted sales – are hidden costs that may not be managed and monitored. Inefficiencies can be larger than the visible costs of wastage suggest.

Lastly, there is issue in strategy development whereby it requires integrated components. The system is more than the sum of its parts. For instance, marketing skills need to be complemented with improved demand and supply forecasting capabilities. Similarly, developing a collaborative relationship between retailer and supplier is essential to generate higher rates of product innovation. Diversity of product or service is resulting from competition in new business designs. Food industry is often faced with competitive price and unable to maintain diversity in its product and quality due to the same business model practices. Both retailers and suppliers should be cooperative to support the new system so that both parties will benefit from it.

3.0 Conclusion
In conclusion, innovation in fresh food is essential to prolong the shelf life of the product, providing variety of products to consumers, simplify operational management, reduce cost of loss, increase more revenue and service upgrading. Innovation is always crucial in a world in which grocery and mass retailers generally offer the same product range as their competitors (Nielsen, n.d.). Thus, the cooperation between retailers and suppliers or retailers and management are indispensable to succeed.  The role of retailers in innovation is vital to ensure the process is successful eventhough they have to deal with any issues or challenges ahead.

Alberta Value Chain Initiative. Fresh Food Category Management: Leveraging Strategic Options. Alberta: Agriculture and Food Council of Alberta. Accessed on 1st October 2016,$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agp11922/$FILE/RetailPaper2FreshFood.pdf
Allen, J.W., McLaughilin, E.W. and Pierson, T.R. (1990). Strategic Directions in Supermarket Deli/Prepared Foods. New York: Cornell University.
Bourlakis, M., Hirner, S., Moiter, C. and Werkhoven, T. (2013). Six Perspectives on Retail Innovation – Expert Group on Retail Sector Innovation. Brussels: Publications Office of the European Union.
Carter, H. (2013). What’s Your angle on Fresh Prepared Food? Burke. Accessed on 4th October 2016,
Donnan, D., Goldin, B., Ouimet, R., Anderson, A. and Hanson, W. (2013). Fresh Prepared Foods: Cracking the Code for U.S. Retailers.  San Francisco: A.T.Kearney.
Duff & Phelps (2016). Industry Insights: Food Retail Industry Insights – 2016. Accessed on 5th October 2016,
Harvard University Press. Harvard Reference Guidelines. Accessed on 14th October 2016,
Miller, D. (2008). Retail Marketing: A Branding and Innovation Approach. Melbourne: Tilde University Press.
Nielsen.  Continuous Innovation: The Key to Retail Success. Accessed on 12th October 2016,

Stones, M. (2013). Food Retailing to Polarise around Premium and Value. Accessed on 29th September 2016,
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